I got this error in an ASP.NET MVC 4 application after installing DotnetOpenAuth via the Package Manager Console:

Could not load file or assembly 'DotNetOpenAuth.Core, Version=4.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=2780ccd10d57b246' or one of its dependencies. The located assembly's manifest definition does not match the assembly reference. (Exception from HRESULT: 0x80131040)

The application was actually upgraded earlier from ASP.NET MVC 3, i.e. it was not autogenerated by Visual Studio 2012. The pre-binding info in the exception was:

=== Pre-bind state information ===
LOG: User = NT AUTHORITY\NETWORK SERVICE
LOG: DisplayName = DotNetOpenAuth.Core, Version=4.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=2780ccd10d57b246
    (Fully-specified)
LOG: Appbase = file:///
LOG: Initial PrivatePath = \bin
Calling assembly : Microsoft.Web.WebPages.OAuth, Version=2.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35.
===
LOG: This bind starts in default load context.
LOG: Using application configuration file: \web.config
LOG: Using host configuration file: C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\aspnet.config
LOG: Using machine configuration file from C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\config\machine.config.
LOG: Post-policy reference: DotNetOpenAuth.Core, Version=4.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=2780ccd10d57b246
LOG: Attempting download of new URL file:////DotNetOpenAuth.Core.DLL.
LOG: Attempting download of new URL file:////DotNetOpenAuth.Core/DotNetOpenAuth.Core.DLL.
LOG: Attempting download of new URL file:////DotNetOpenAuth.Core.DLL.
WRN: Comparing the assembly name resulted in the mismatch: Minor Version
ERR: Failed to complete setup of assembly (hr = 0x80131040). Probing terminated.

The key pieces of information here are at lines 3 and 7. Basically, Microsoft.Web.WebPages.OAuth needs DotNetOpenAuth.Core 4.0.0.0, but the DotNetOpenAuth.Core I have is version4.3.0.0.

The solution is to add these lines under the / section of the root Web.config:

<dependentAssembly>
    <assemblyIdentity name="DotNetOpenAuth.AspNet" publicKeyToken="2780ccd10d57b246" culture="neutral" />
    <bindingRedirect oldVersion="0.0.0.0-4.3.0.0" newVersion="4.3.0.0" />
</dependentAssembly>
<dependentAssembly>
    <assemblyIdentity name="DotNetOpenAuth.Core" publicKeyToken="2780ccd10d57b246" culture="neutral" />
    <bindingRedirect oldVersion="0.0.0.0-4.3.0.0" newVersion="4.3.0.0" />
</dependentAssembly>

The above solution works for other packages that ASP.NET MVC 4 depends on. For example, if you upgrade WebGrease from 1.0.0.0 to 1.3.0.0, you have to add this to the / section:

<dependentAssembly>
    <assemblyIdentity name="WebGrease" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" culture="neutral" />
    <bindingRedirect oldVersion="0.0.0.0-1.3.0.0" newVersion="1.3.0.0" />
</dependentAssembly>
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